Irony: Contradiction between appearances and reality.
When we expect one thing and another occurs.
A. Verbal Irony: Occurs when what a character says is the exact opposite
of what he / she means. Sarcasm
is similar to verbal irony; however, sarcasm is harsh and direct while
verbal irony is implied.
B. Situational Irony: The actual outcome is the exact opposite or very
different from the expected outcome.
In situational irony, the final outcome often seems “unfair.”
C. Cosmic Irony (Irony of Fate): When situational irony goes beyond just
being unfair and becomes morally tragic.
Cosmic irony often causes characters to question their deities and
causes them to see the universe as hostile.
Cosmic irony suggests that people are just pawns to malicious
D. Dramatic Irony: The
audience is aware of what is happening before the characters are.
There is a contrast between the true situation and what the
character says and does.