Irony:  Contradiction between appearances and reality.  When we expect one thing and another occurs.

   A. Verbal Irony: Occurs when what a character says is the exact opposite of what he / she means.  Sarcasm is similar to verbal irony; however, sarcasm is harsh and direct while verbal irony is implied.

   B. Situational Irony: The actual outcome is the exact opposite or very different from the expected outcome.  In situational irony, the final outcome often seems “unfair.”

   C. Cosmic Irony (Irony of Fate): When situational irony goes beyond just being unfair and becomes morally tragic.  Cosmic irony often causes characters to question their deities and causes them to see the universe as hostile.  Cosmic irony suggests that people are just pawns to malicious forces.

   D. Dramatic Irony:  The audience is aware of what is happening before the characters are.  There is a contrast between the true situation and what the character says and does.