performance stemmed from religious festivals.
were used to teach social lessons.
was not just entertainment—it was a cultural necessity.
it looked like:
amphitheaters could hold as many as 40,000 spectators.
were so good that every member of the audience could hear the actors—no
matter where they were sitting.
wore exaggerated masks so the audience could differentiate between
is possible masks were used for vocal projection as well.
violence was so repulsive it ruined the artistic affect of drama.
violent action took place offstage and was reported by a messenger.
of 15 actors who represented the rational voice of society.
sang or chanted their lines.
danced or performed dance-like movements across the stage while delivering
1st ode—chorus moved from the right to the left of the stage.
2nd ode—chorus moved from the left to right back to their
Final ode—sung standing still.
Thespis: The first actor to break from the chorus—thus actors are
translates as “God out of a machine.”
device used to lower “gods” onto the stage.
often appeared to solve the unsolvable problems of the characters.
was also used to lift characters off the stage.
audience’s willingness to accept the world of the drama as reality
during the course of a play
release the audience should feel after watching a tragedy.
purifies us of our baser emotions so that the better ones shine forth.
/ viewers turn their thoughts inward to ponder their own fate.
/ viewers are moved to consider the fate of all human beings.
Character of noble
birth (king or princess).
Larger in spirit
than the average person.
committing an act (mistake) that will cause unnecessary
Has a tragic flaw:
a personality trait that causes the character’s downfall.
The flaw of pride / abuse of power.
This is the most common
vanity, arrogance, envy, etc.
A tragic hero is
Isolated because s/he is above most
others in society.
Isolated in the end as a result of their fatal error and
the consequences of