Capitalize all proper nouns. Proper nouns are words that refer to a specific person, place, or thing. (All other nouns are called "common nouns" and are not capitalized.)
Carbondale High School
Capitalize the following:
Book, play, and album titles
Days of the week, months of the year
Nouns or pronouns referring to a Supreme Being
Sacred books of all religions
Specific courses in school
Countries' names or words that come from a country's name
Catcher In The Rye, Romeo and Juliet
Wednesday, Thursday, March, April
President Clinton, Principal Skinner
God, Him, Krishna, Jehovah, Allah
Talmud, Bible, Koran
Geometry I, World History
America, American, Spanish
Do not capitalize the following:
Words indicating direction
A field of study
south, northeast, west
science, history, math
Commas are used to indicate a pause in reading, usually to make it easier to understand the sentence.
To set off introductory phrases before the main part of a sentence.
Note: Commas are not used
on explanatory material that is essential to the meaning of the sentence.
A fragment is a group of words that is written as a sentence, even though it may be missing parts.
Books with no covers. (This fragment is missing a verb.)
Running and laughing about the great prank they had just pulled.
A pronoun takes the place of a noun. If the noun is singular, then the pronoun must be singular. If the noun is plural, the pronoun must be plural.
Incorrect: Any teacher is willing to help their
any, most, none, and
some are singular when they refer to singular words and plural when
they refer to plural words.
All of the students are taking part in the class
a singular verb to agree with the following singular indefinite pronouns: anybody,
anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither,
nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something.
These poems by Sandburg and Poe are more effective when read aloud
since each of them uses striking sound patterns.
a plural verb to agree with the following plural indefinite pronouns: both,
few, many, and several.
Many of the students have read several short stories
A pronoun must agree with the word it replaces, or its antecedent. When the antecedent is a singular indefinite pronoun (words like each, none, somebody), use singular pronouns when referring back to it.
Incorrect: None of the boys had their homework finished.
avoid awkward his or her constructions, revise the sentence by
making the antecedent plural.
Each of these poets composed his or her work
Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation--a person's exact words.
"I want to go to the game tonight," my little sister
not use quotation marks to enclose an indirect quotation--a rewording of a
person's exact words.
My little sister said she wanted to go to the game tonight.
Begin a direct quotation with a capital letter.
The teacher announced, "Your essays are due on Friday."
an expression identifying the speaker interrupts a quoted sentence, the
second part of the quotation begins with a small letter.
"The assignment requires," Ms. Murphy continued, "a
minimum of 1,000 words."
Commas and periods are always placed inside closing quotation marks.
"You may rely on me to finish my part of the project,"
"Come inside," the lady said, "if you want to get
out of the wind."
Run-on Sentences and Comma
Run-on: The dance was not much fun, everybody left before midnight.
A verb must agree with its subject in number--either singular or plural. The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase coming between the subject and the verb.
Mme. Loisel, along with her husband, attends the
subjects joined by and usually take a plural verb.
Athena and Odysseus almost seem like partners in Homer's epic.
Either Nancy or Jack is going to win the award
Neither Cherise nor the other students seem to like
the subject follows the verb, as in questions and in sentences beginning
with here and there, identify the subject and make sure that
the verb agrees with it.
Here is a list of properties needed for the play.
title of a creative work (such as a book, song, movie, or painting) and
the name of a country (even if it is plural in from) take a singular verb.
is used to tell printers to use italics when they set the type.
Usually complete, longer works of art are underlined.
So, the title of a book of poetry is underlined, but the title of
an individual poem is put in quotes.
The title of a record album is underlined, but the title of an
individual song is in quotes.
Underline the following:
The titles of magazines
Use quotation marks with the following:
Seventeen, Rolling Stone
Romeo and Juliet, Medea
The tiles of articles
"Terriers Win South Seven Title"
"The Lady of the Tiger," "The Lottery"
"Casey at the Bat"
"The Star Spangled Banner"
When the verbs in a sentence or group of sentences shift from past or present or from present to past without reason, the reader may not be able to follow the intended meaning. Correct the shift by using consistent tenses for all verbs.
president makes a speech but he refused to answer questions.
present tense to describe the actions in a book.
Incorrect: In the novel, Huckleberry
Finn, Huck floated down the river on a raft with Jim and met
many odd characters.
Incorrect: After a little practice, you will really enjoy working
with the puppets.
is literally a form of theft. It is claiming someone else's words
and/or ideas as your own. If
you copy someone else's words and/or ideas into an essay without giving
credit to the writer or paraphrase someone else's words and/or ideas
without giving credit, you are plagiarizing.
If plagiarism can be proven the following sequence will be
For the first offense, the student will receive an "F" or zero
on the essay, and the student's quarter grade will be lowered by one
grade. A conference with the
student and parents is mandatory.
For the second and subsequent offenses, the student will receive an
“F" for the quarter, and parents will be again contacted.
is simple to avoid plagiarism. Writers
must give the source of their materials by using in-line citations and
Works Cited pages for quotations or when using other's ideas.
quotation is using someone else's words in your text.
It does not matter if a character is speaking or if the narrator is
merely telling the story. Either
is considered a quotation and requires in-line citations and a Works Cited
citations tell the reader who wrote the quoted work and what page the
quote can be found on. The author's last name and the page number are put
in parenthesis usually placed after the sentence.
Holden says, "I can't stand all those phonies at the
party" (Salinger 15).
If you give the author's or name in your essay, you only need to write the
page number after the quote.
you use quotes from a work of literature, usually introduce the quote by
giving the context in which the quote was used and who said it.
You should also explain the point you are trying to make by using
explaining to his children about the Ewell family, Atticus tells them they
must "learn to walk a mile their shoes" (Lee 48).
Atticus is a man who
knows his children must learn to accept diversity in the world.
Example: When he
arrives in Salem, a lot of people are curious about why his books are so
heavy. Hale says, "The
must be, they are weighted with authority" (Miller 1191). At this point, he is very confident that his books will give
him the knowledge to solve Salem's witchcraft problems.
Below is a sample paragraph that uses appropriate in-line citations and introduces and explains the quotes.
The satire of Huckleberry Finn is very obvious in the
chapter where Twain describes Pokeville and the goings on in this horrible
Arkansas town. In this
chapter, Twain mocks the "country life" that many saw as ideal. "Pokeville is the exact opposite of what the romantics
thought village life in 1850's American should be like," writes
critic Johnson Gregory (237). Country
life is shown as filthy, mean, and ugly.
Huck says the "streets was filled with mud, thick as tar, and
as sticky too. You couldn't hardly walk for all the pigs layin about"
(Twain 163). This is not a
romantic view of small town life. Pokeville
is clearly meant to show how ugly parts of America were at this time. The people in the town are no better than the town's streets.
They are described as "shiftless loafers, standin around,
looking for something to do besides spitting tobacco" (161).
Their primary source of entertainment seems to be "dossin a
dog with turpentine, (and) settin it afire" (162). Obviously Twain is
showing the ugliest side of American country life.
He "shows a genuine dislike for all that was rural in America
at this time" (Rolyat 76).
Works Cited page, formerly called the "Bibliography," is a
listing of all the print and media materials used in writing a paper.
Write or type the words "Works Cited" centered one inch
from the top of the page. Skip
a line. Then list your sources in alphabetical order by author's last
name. Use the reverse indentation system with the first line of the
entry against the right hand margin, and the following lines of the entry
indented five spaces.
no author is given, alphabetize by the first word of the title. If the
first word is a, and, or the, alphabetize the second word.
If two works by the same author are listed, insert three hyphens
and a period (---.) in place of the author's name at the start of the
second and last references.
Alphabetize sources by last name of the author. Where there is no author,
list by the first word of the
Use the reverse indentation system.
Put the author's last name first.
Write any co-authors' first names first.
Underline book, magazine, newspaper, and film titles.
Put quotation marks around titles of articles, short stories, and poems.
Abbreviate the names of publishers.
Put a period at the end of each entry.
Do not number entries.
Rex. "Memories of the Good Old Days: When We Ruled the Earth." Time
20 July 1946: 56-59. (newspaper, magazine)
H., et al. "Strings and Things." Southern Illinoisan 31
Mar. 1997: A6, AlO-11. (text
with more than three authors)
Gates, Bill. "Dreams of World Power." Computers in the Future. Eds. Samuel Burbridge and F. Goedel. New York:
Bite Me Press, 2000. 247-301. (article or chapter in a book)
Leamsalot, Mary. "A Study of Schools." Journal of Thinking 62.4 (1948): 71-79. (Scholarly journal article: 62.4 refers to the volume and issue number.)
"The Neatest Way to Write a Works Cited Page." Rolling Stone Magazine 13 Apr. 1984: 23. (Unsigned article)
Neandertal, Larry. "How Do You Work These Things?" Stone Home Page. Dec. 1986. 23 Jan. 2000 http://RockUniversity/fac/neanderl/confuse.edu.html. (www site)
Rolyat, Robert. Personal Interview. 31 Jan. 2000. (Personal Interview)