for Writing Conclusions
introductions, conclusions have a key textual function: they escort the
reader out of the paper, just as the introduction has brought them in.
What does the reader want as they leave the textual world you have
taken them through? In some combination, most readers want three things: a
judgment, a culmination, and a send-off.
conclusion is a place for final judgment on whatever question, issue, or
problem the paper’s thesis has focused on.
In most cases, the judgment often repeats some of the key terms in
the introduction; however, the conclusion reconsiders the essay’s
thesis. It also revisits the
introductory claim for why the topic matters.
than simply summarizing what has proceeded or reasserting your main
points, or thesis, the conclusion needs to culminate.
At the end of the paper, you can assume your reader now has a grasp
of the facts. The conclusion should bring these facts and assertions
together and ascend to a cumulative statement of your thinking about the
climactic effects of the judgment and culmination provide the basis for
the send-off. The send off leads your reader out of the paper with
something further to think about. In
other words, the conclusion needs to move beyond the close argumentation
or analysis of data that has occupied the body of the paper into a broader
speculation of the larger picture.
conclusion should avoid redundancy by providing more than a restatement of
what you’ve already said in the previous section of your essay.
Here are three more suggestions regarding what an effective
conclusion should accomplish.
implications—Reason from the results of your study to consider the
broader issues, such as your thesis’ practical consequences or
applications, or future-oriented issues, such as avenues for further
research or questioning. To
unfold implications in this way is to broaden the view from the
here-and-now of your paper by looking outward to the wider world and
forward to the future.
limitations—Acknowledge restrictions of the method or focus in your
argumentation, and qualify your conclusion (and its implications)